WHAT IS THE RDA FOR PROTEIN, AND IS IT ADEQUATE? (2023)

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is “the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in a group.” However, that definition does not match the term. The RDA is neither a “recommendation” nor an “allowance,” but rather a “adequate intake amount.”1 The RDA for protein (0.8g/kg/d) is based on analysis of nitrogen balance studies. Therefore, the RDA for protein is the amount of protein needed to avoid a negative nitrogen balance. This criterion creates 2 primary problems: (1) a misunderstanding of what the RDA actually means, and (2) the RDA for protein is not based on a health outcome.

The implication of tying the protein RDA to nitrogen balance rather than a health outcome (e.g., development of heart disease, muscle function, or lean body mass) means we do not know how well that level of intake corresponds to the optimal level of intake. Use of nitrogen balance may well be appropriate for establishing the nitrogen or protein requirements to prevent deficiency, but it is likely inadequate to establish intakes that are optimal for maximizing muscle mass, strength, or even cardiovascular health. This predicament is because individuals can adapt to suboptimal protein intakes by reducing nitrogen excretion. This situation is best exemplified by starvation studies in the Warsaw ghetto where grossly depleted individuals were able to maintain nitrogen balance until shortly before death.2 Yet obviously neither their intake of energy substrates nor of protein were close to optimal. This effect has also been demonstrated in protein habituation studies using more advanced and sensitive isotope tracer studies.3-5

If an individual were to consume the RDAs for all macronutrients, only ~40% (depending on age, sex, activity level, and other factors) of the total energy requirement would be met.1 Regardless of whether 0.8g/kg/d is an appropriate value for the RDA, the more salient question is “what percentage of macronutrient intake should be consumed to make up the remaining caloric requirement for the day?” It is only logical that some of this discretionary intake should come from protein. It should be considered that if the portion of the balance of caloric intake between the RDAs and total required caloric intake is not composed of protein, it must all be sourced from carbohydrate and/or fat. Higher carbohydrate and fat intake have both been associated with adverse health effects, whereas adverse effects of high protein intake in healthy individuals have not been identified.6-11 In contrast, a series of investigations observed no harmful effects on blood lipids, metabolic panel, or liver and kidney function when prescribing “very” high (3.4 – 4.4 g/kg/day) protein diets for periods of 6 weeks to 6 months in resistance-trained individuals.12–15 These human intervention studies are also in agreement with epidemiological analysis in women from The Nurses’ Health Study cohort which suggest replacing carbohydrates with protein may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease.16 Thus considering the low risk of higher protein intakes, the question is not whether individuals should only consume the RDA but how much discretionary intake should be sourced from protein.

(Video) Is the RDA for protein too low? | Dr. Stuart Phillips

In addition to the RDA, macronutrient recommendations are also given as the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), which for protein is 10–35%. The AMDR expresses intake recommendations as a percentage of total caloric intake. The daily energy requirement of a sedentary 19-year-old man (76kg and 1.76m tall) is estimated to be 37.8 kcal/kg/d.1 Ten percent of this caloric intake translates to a protein intake of 0.95g/kg/d and 35% of energy intake translates to 3.3g/kg/d. Thus, the RDA is below the lowest intake recommended by the AMDR when considered in the context of the overall dietary intake of macronutrients.17

Special Considerations and the RDA

Plant-Based Consumers

(Video) Why the RDA for protein is wrong

There is great interest in the potential health benefits of consuming a largely or entirely plant-based diet. For consumers of plant-based diets (e.g., vegetarian, vegan, flexitarian), it is important to bear in mind that the RDA doesn’t consider protein source. The principal benefit of the protein matrix of a food source is the provision of essential amino acids (EAA), the primary stimulators of muscle protein turnover,18 and animal proteins/omnivore diets are higher in EAA. Consuming plant protein at the RDA level increases the likelihood that an individual is farther away from an optimal health endpoint due to lower EAA intake. However, the solution for plant-based consumers is simple: consume greater amounts of protein. For example, recent work compared muscle strength in young healthy men who were either habitual omnivores or vegans following a 12-week, twice-weekly supervised resistance training program in which no statistical differences in muscle hypertrophy or strength were noted.19 Importantly, the protein intake was increased from 0.9g/kg/d in the plant-based group and 1.18g/kg/d to 1.6-1.7g/kg/d in the omnivore group. This protein intake was achieved through soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate supplementation. This work is similar to our own investigations at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences demonstrating soy protein (tofu) to be a potent stimulator of whole-body protein synthesis.20 Additional trials are ongoing, but the current evidence indicates that when protein intake is double the RDA, plant-based diets can promote similar changes in muscle strength and hypertrophy as meat-based diets.

Elderly

There has long been an interest in an RDA for dietary protein specific to elderly individuals. In 2013, an international study group representing the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, the International Academy on Nutrition and Aging, and the Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine, recommended average daily intake be at least in the range of 1.0-1.2g/kg/d to help the elderly (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function.21 This recommendation is supported by studies demonstrating that elderly people consuming the RDA for protein lose mid-thigh area muscle, while protein intake greater than 1.2g/kg/d resulted in improved physical performance and muscle mass.5,22,23,

(Video) How much protein do we REALLY need? Is the RDA too low??

Regular Exercisers & Caloric Deficit

Exercise is a potent regulator of muscle protein turnover, and as a result, individuals engaging in exercise require a greater amount of protein for optimal adaptation. In fact, a single resistance exercise session is capable of increasing protein turnover for at least 24 hours.24 During this period, the muscle has an increased sensitivity to the anabolic effect of dietary protein. The RDA does not consider nitrogen losses due to exercise, and consequently the RDA will not be sufficient to promote optimal exercise-induced adaptations. In order to support optimal recovery and adaptations in people engaging in exercise, protein intakes of 1.2-2.0g/kg/d have been recommended by multiple experts and organizations. 24-26

Caloric restriction often accompanies exercise in both individuals attempting to lose weight and in active individuals participating in weight class sports. Recent studies provide strong evidence that individuals undergoing caloric restriction required protein intakes higher than the RDA to maintain muscle mass. Controlled laboratory studies during periods of caloric deficit in which less than 40% total energy requirements are consumed indicate protein intakes of 1.6-2.4g/kg/d are effective at reducing the loss of lean body mass. 27-29

(Video) RDA Protein Calculation

Protein Distribution

A common consensus based off the refractory period of muscle protein synthesis is that an even daily protein intake distribution is superior to a skewed distribution. One study noted a significantly higher 24-hour muscle protein synthesis rate when an even distribution of protein was provided.30 However, 2 other studies were not able to confirm these results, 31,32 showing almost identical muscle protein synthesis rates between even and skewed distribution. Furthermore, a randomized parallel-design study in overweight adults consuming 1.0g/kg/d of protein undergoing weight loss in addition to resistance exercise observed no significant differences in measures of body composition following 16 weeks of skewed versus even protein distribution pattern.33 While still an interesting subject with additional trials required, the evidence indicates 1 meal each day that maximally stimulates muscle protein synthesis is sufficient.

Conclusion

(Video) Introduction to Protein Needs in Disease States

Limitations of how the RDA for protein was determined aside, multiple lines of evidence support the notion that increased protein intakes provide beneficial health adaptation. For example, the literature supports increased dietary protein intake for individuals engaging in exercise with or without a caloric deficit, as well as for the elderly. While plant proteins may be lower in EAA content, recent studies show that when protein intakes are double the RDA, individuals engaging in omnivore and plant-based diets show equivalent improvements in strength and muscle hypertrophy. The literature on protein distribution is sparse. Experts generally agree that if protein distribution has an effect, it is a small one, and total protein intake is more important.

REFERENCES

  1. Medicine I of. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2022 Apr 29]. Available from: https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/10490/dietary-reference-intakes-for-energy-carbohydrate-fiber-fat-fatty-acids-cholesterol-protein-and-amino-acids
  2. Winick M, Osnos M. Hunger disease: studies by the Jewish physicians in the Warsaw ghetto. New York, NY: Wiley, 1979.
  3. Højfeldt G, Bülow J, Agergaard J, Simonsen LR, Bülow J, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Holm L. Postprandial muscle protein synthesis rate is unaffected by 20-day habituation to a high protein intake: a randomized controlled, crossover trial. Eur J Nutr 60: 4307–4319, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s00394-021-02590-4.
  4. Højfeldt G, Bülow J, Agergaard J, Asmar A, Schjerling P, Simonsen L, Bülow J, van Hall G, Holm L. Impact of habituated dietary protein intake on fasting and postprandial whole-body protein turnover and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in elderly men: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 112: 1468–1484, 2020. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa201.
  5. Campbell WW, Trappe TA, Wolfe RR, Evans WJ. The recommended dietary allowance for protein may not be adequate for older people to maintain skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56: M373-380, 2001. doi: 10.1093/gerona/56.6.m373.
  6. Even PC, Nadkarni NA, Chaumontet C, Azzout-Marniche D, Fromentin G, Tomé D. Identification of behavioral and metabolic factors predicting adiposity sensitivity to both high fat and high carbohydrate diets in rats. Front Physiol 2: 96, 2011. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00096.
  7. Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Ward LC, Waanders J, Brown L. Chronic high-carbohydrate, high-fat feeding in rats induces reversible metabolic, cardiovascular, and liver changes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302: E1472-1482, 2012. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00102.2012.
  8. Panchal SK, Ward L, Brown L. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Eur J Nutr 52: 559–568, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0358-9.
  9. Chun M-R, Lee YJ, Kim K-H, Kim Y-W, Park S-Y, Lee K-M, Kim J-Y, Park Y-K. Differential Effects of High-carbohydrate and High-fat Diet Composition on Muscle Insulin Resistance in Rats. J Korean Med Sci 25: 1053–1059, 2010. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2010.25.7.1053.
  10. Chiu C-J, Liu S, Willett WC, Wolever TM, Brand-Miller JC, Barclay AW, Taylor A. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index. Nutr Rev 69: 231–242, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00382.x.
  11. Wolever TMS, Gibbs AL, Chiasson J-L, Connelly PW, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Maheux P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Rodger NW, Ryan EA. Altering source or amount of dietary carbohydrate has acute and chronic effects on postprandial glucose and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes: Canadian trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23: 227–234, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.12.011.
  12. Antonio J, Ellerbroek A, Silver T, Orris S, Scheiner M, Gonzalez A, Peacock CA. A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women--a follow-up investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:39. PMCID: PMC4617900
  13. Antonio J, Peacock CA, Ellerbroek A, Fromhoff B, Silver T. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014;11:19. PMCID: PMC4022420
  14. Antonio J, Ellerbroek A, Silver T, Vargas L, Tamayo A, Buehn R, Peacock CA. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males. J Nutr Metab. 2016;2016:9104792. PMCID: PMC5078648
  15. Antonio J, Ellerbroek A, Silver T, Vargas L, Peacock C. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:3. PMCID: PMC4715299
  16. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Aug;70(2):221–227. PMID: 10426698
  17. Miller SL, Wolfe RR. The Recommended Dietary Allowance of Protein: A Misunderstood Concept. JAMA. 2008 Oct;15(15):1763. PMID: 18577734
  18. Church DD, Hirsch KR, Park S, Kim I-Y, Gwin JA, Pasiakos SM, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA. Essential Amino Acids and Protein Synthesis: Insights into Maximizing the Muscle and Whole-Body Response to Feeding. Nutrients 12: 3717, 2020. doi: 10.3390/nu12123717.
  19. Hevia-Larraín V, Gualano B, Longobardi I, Gil S, Fernandes AL, Costa LAR, Pereira RMR, Artioli GG, Phillips SM, Roschel H. High-Protein Plant-Based Diet Versus a Protein-Matched Omnivorous Diet to Support Resistance Training Adaptations: A Comparison Between Habitual Vegans and Omnivores.
  20. Park S, Church DD, Schutzler SE, Azhar G, Kim I-Y, Ferrando AA, Wolfe RR. Metabolic Evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines’ Ounce Equivalents of Protein Food Sources in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Nutr 151: 1190–1196, 2021. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa401.
  21. Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, Cesari M, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Morley JE, Phillips S, Sieber C, Stehle P, Teta D, Visvanathan R, Volpi E, Boirie Y. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14: 542–559, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.05.021.
  22. Tieland M, van de Rest O, Dirks ML, van der Zwaluw N, Mensink M, van Loon LJC, de Groot LCPGM. Protein supplementation improves physical performance in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 13: 720–726, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2012.07.005.
  23. Tieland M, Dirks ML, van der Zwaluw N, Verdijk LB, van de Rest O, de Groot LCPGM, van Loon LJC. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc 13: 713–719, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2012.05.020.
  24. Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 273: E99-107, 1997. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1997.273.1.E99.
  25. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet 116: 501–528, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006.
  26. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, Purpura M, Ziegenfuss TN, Ferrando AA, Arent SM, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, Arciero PJ, Ormsbee MJ, Taylor LW, Wilborn CD, Kalman DS, Kreider RB, Willoughby DS, Hoffman JR, Krzykowski JL, Antonio J. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14: 20, 2017. doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8.
  27. Pasiakos SM, Cao JJ, Margolis LM, Sauter ER, Whigham LD, McClung JP, Rood JC, Carbone JW, Combs GF, Young AJ. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 27: 3837–3847, 2013. doi: 10.1096/fj.13-230227.
  28. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 103: 738–746, 2016. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.119339.
  29. Mettler S, Mitchell N, Tipton KD. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42: 326–337, 2010. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e.
  30. Mamerow MM, Mettler JA, English KL, Casperson SL, Arentson-Lantz E, Sheffield-Moore M, Layman DK, Paddon-Jones D. Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults123. J Nutr 144: 876–880, 2014. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.185280.
  31. Kim I-Y, Schutzler S, Schrader AM, Spencer HJ, Azhar G, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA. Protein intake distribution pattern does not affect anabolic response, lean body mass, muscle strength or function over 8 weeks in older adults: A randomized-controlled trial. Clin Nutr 37: 488–493, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.02.020.
  32. Kim I-Y, Schutzler S, Schrader A, Spencer H, Kortebein P, Deutz NEP, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308: E21-28, 2015. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00382.2014.
  33. Hudson JL, Kim JE, Paddon-Jones D, Campbell WW. Within-day protein distribution does not influence body composition responses during weight loss in resistance-training adults who are overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 106: 1190–1196, 2017. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.158246.

FAQs

What is the RDA for proteins? ›

The recommended dietary allowance to prevent deficiency for an average sedentary adult is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight. For example, a person who weighs 165 pounds, or 75 kilograms, should consume 60 grams of protein per day.

Why is adequate protein intake important? ›

Protein is the building block of your muscles. Therefore, eating adequate amounts of protein helps you maintain your muscle mass and promotes muscle growth when you do strength training. Numerous studies show that eating plenty of protein can help increase muscle mass and strength ( 8 , 9 ).

What is the RDA for protein quizlet? ›

The protein RDA for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram of healthy body weight per day.

What happens if you eat too much protein? ›

Excess protein consumed is usually stored as fat, while the surplus of amino acids is excreted. This can lead to weight gain over time, especially if you consume too many calories while trying to increase your protein intake.

What happens when you have a lack of protein? ›

Weakness and Fatigue

And over time, a lack of protein can make you lose muscle mass, which in turn cuts your strength, makes it harder to keep your balance, and slows your metabolism. It can also lead to anemia, when your cells don't get enough oxygen, which makes you tired.

Do you need to eat protein every day? ›

Your body needs protein each day to function properly and to maintain your lean muscle mass. Most Americans get more than enough protein in their diets each day, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

What is the protein RDA for healthy adults quizlet? ›

The protein RDA for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram of healthy body weight per day.

How was the RDA for protein established? ›

The first RDAs for protein, energy, and 8 vitamins and minerals were established in 1941 by the US National Research Council at the request of the National Defense Advisory Commission (11).

What is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of protein quizlet? ›

What is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of proteins in the diet? 1. They are used as cofactors for metabolic reactions and are required in minute quantities.

How much protein should a 60 year old woman? ›

For women over 50, experts recommend 1 to 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of weight (1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds). If you weigh 140 pounds, for instance, you would need at least 63 grams of protein a day.

How much protein is too much for kidneys? ›

In general, people with one kidney should avoid excessively high dietary protein intake (>1.2 g/kg per day) and high dietary sodium intake; they should also consume adequate dietary fiber and avoid obesity, maintaining a body mass index of <30 kg/m2.

What does a protein deficiency feel like? ›

Symptoms of protein deficiency include fatigue, weakness, thinning hair, brittle nails, and dry skin. Protein deficiency is more likely to affect vegans, vegetarians, those over the age of 70, and anyone with a digestive issue like celiac or Crohn's disease.

How much protein does a 70 year old need? ›

Protein Requirements for Elderly Adults. Experts in the field of protein and aging recommend a protein intake between 1.2 and 2.0 g/kg/day or higher for elderly adults [3,8,15].

How much protein does a 70 year old woman need daily? ›

The current recommended dietary allowance for women older than 70 years is 0.36 grams for each pound of body weight or 46 grams of protein for a 130-pound woman. This amount is the same for all women 19 and older.

What food is full of protein? ›

Protein foods
  • lean meats – beef, lamb, veal, pork, kangaroo.
  • poultry – chicken, turkey, duck, emu, goose, bush birds.
  • fish and seafood – fish, prawns, crab, lobster, mussels, oysters, scallops, clams.
  • eggs.
  • dairy products – milk, yoghurt (especially Greek yoghurt), cheese (especially cottage cheese)

Do older people need more protein? ›

Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults.

What happens if you eat no protein for a day? ›

A consistent lack of protein in your diet will lead to your body breaking down your muscle for amino acids. Essential amino acids are the building blocks of protein and help build muscle mass, along with repair and regrowing muscle tissue.

Is it OK to eat 2 eggs a day? ›

The American Heart Association recommends up to one egg a day for most people, fewer for people with high blood cholesterol, especially those with diabetes or who are at risk for heart failure, and up to two eggs a day for older people with normal cholesterol levels and who eat a healthy diet.

What is a typical healthy adult's RDA for protein multiple choice question? ›

The answer, as established by the National Academy of Medicine, is that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein for adults is 0.8 g per kilogram of body weight. To determine your RDA for protein, multiply your weight in pounds by 0.36. Or, try this online protein calculator.

Do adults need more than the current RDA for protein? ›

The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram (g/kg) of body weight a day for adults over 18, or about 2.3 ounces for a 180-pound adult. But research is showing that higher levels may be needed for adults age 65-plus.

What is the protein recommendation for general population adults? ›

Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day.

What is RDA and why is it important? ›

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, are judged by the Food and Nutrition Board to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons.

Do most Americans meet RDA for protein? ›

Results. Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein.

What is adequate intake? ›

A dietary recommendation used when there isn't enough data to calculate an average requirement. An adequate intake is the average nutrient level consumed daily by a typical healthy population that is assumed to be adequate for the population's needs.

What happens when a person's protein intake is inadequate quizlet? ›

What happens when there is an inadequate consumption of protein? protein concentration in the blood drops, immune function is impaired, and edema can develop. What nutrient forms important structures in the body, makes up a key part of the blood, helps regulate many body functions, and can fuel body cells.

What are the important of adequate human nutrition? ›

A healthy diet throughout life promotes healthy pregnancy outcomes, supports normal growth, development and ageing, helps to maintain a healthy body weight, and reduces the risk of chronic disease leading to overall health and well-being.

What might happen to you if you consume less or more than the recommended amount of iron? ›

In healthy people, taking high doses of iron supplements (especially on an empty stomach) can cause an upset stomach, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Large amounts of iron might also cause more serious effects, including inflammation of the stomach lining and ulcers.

What is the RDA for protein Nasm quizlet? ›

Recommended Daily Allowance(RDA) for protein is 0.8 g/kg/day. 10 to 35% of total caloric intake.

What is the RDA for protein for a 121 pound woman in grams per day quizlet? ›

what would be the recommended amount of protein for a 121-pound female? 44 g/day.

What are proteins nutrition quizlet? ›

large complex molecules composed of amino acids. Proteins are long chains of fatty acids. The structure of each protein is dictated by the DNA of a gene.

What is the RDA for carbohydrates quizlet? ›

What is the RDA for carbohydrates? 130 grams.

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