Urine: Composition, Constituents and Deposits (2023)


In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Composition of Urine 2. Constituents of Urine 3. Deposits.

Composition of Urine:

A. Volume:

1. A normal adult excretes daily from 1000 ml to 1800 ml of urine. The average is 1500 ml containing 60 gm. of solids.


2. The quantity depends on the water intake, external temperature, the diet and the in­dividual’s mental and physical condition.

3. A high protein diet increases excretion be­cause the urea formed as a result of catabolism of protein has a diuretic action.

4. The diuretic action of tea, coffee and co­coa is due to caffeine.

5. The decreased volume of urine in hot weather is due to an increased loss of wa­ter by perspiration.


6. Nervousness or excitement causes in­creased urinary volume.

7. Increased urine volumes are observed in diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and certain types of kidney diseases and de­creased volumes are found in acute ne­phritis, fevers, diseases of the heart, diarrhea and vomiting.

B. Specific Gravity:

1. The specific gravity of urine in 24 hours lies between 1.003 and 1.030 and varies according to concentration of solutes in the urine. The figures in the second and third decimal places, multiplied by 2.66 (Long’s coefficient) give roughly the to­tal solids in the urine in gm./L. 50 gm. of solids are the average normal for the day.

2. The specific gravity of the urine varies with the food, water intake, and the activ­ity of the individual.

3. In chronic interstitial nephritis, the spe­cific gravity is lowered.

4. The specific gravity is increased in the ex­cretion of abnormal substances such as albumin or glucose (e.g., diabetes mellitus).

C. Colour:

1. Normal urine is pale yellow or amber. The colour is roughly proportional to the spe­cific gravity. Very dilute urine is colour­less.


2. Teroehrome, composed of a polypeptide and urobilin, is the chief pigment of urine. Traces of coproporphyrtn, urobilinogen and litroerytbrin are also found in urine.

3. Reddish urine is due to the ingestion of naturally coloured foods (e.g., beetroot, blackberries). In fever, the urine may be dark yellow or brownish because of con­centration. In liver disease, the urine may be green, brown, or deep yellow due to bile pigments. Blood or hemoglobin de­velops smoky to red colour. The urine is dark brown due to methemoglobin and homogentisic acid. Methylene blue gives the urine a green appearance.

4. The urine is transparent. A turbidity is de­veloped in alkaline urine by precipitation of calcium phosphate. Strongly acid urine is pink due to the precipitation of uric acid salts.

D. Odour:


1. Fresh urine is normally aromatic.

2. The odour is modified by the ingestion of certain foods or drugs. This is noticed af­ter eating asparagus; the odour is due to methyl mercaptan.

3. The ammoniacal smell of urine is due to the action of bacteria on urea.

4. In ketosis, the odour of excreted acetone is detected.


E. pH:

1. The mixed sample of normal urine in 24 hours has a pH 6.0. Individual samples vary from 4.6 to 8.0.

2. The urine is acid in high protein intake because excess phosphate and sulfate are formed in the catabolism of protein. Acid­ity is also increased in acidosis and in fe­ver.

3. The urine becomes alkaline on standing due to the conversion of urea to ammonia and loss of CO2 to air. It may be alkaline in alkalosis such as after excessive vomit­ing and after meals due to H+ secretion in the stomach (the “alkaline tide”).


4. The acidity of urine is increased after strenuous muscular exercise (elimination of lactic acid), by ingestion of ammonium salts of strong acids. An alkaline urine may be produced by ingestion of sufficient NaHCO3. Ammonium carbonate does not produce an alkaline urine because ammo­nia is rapidly converted into urea.

Constituents of Urine:

Normal Constituents of Urine:

A. Urea: Nitrogenous Constituents:

(Video) 1: Abnormal Urine | Part 1 | Physical Properties | Urine Analysis | Biochemistry | MBBS, DMLT, BPMT

1. Urea is the main end product of catabo­lism of protein in mammals. Its excretion is directly proportional to the protein in­take. It consists of 80-90% of the total uri­nary nitrogen.

2. In fever, diabetes, or excess adrenocorti­cal activity, urea excretion is increased due to increased protein catabolism.

3. Decreased urea excretion is due to de­creased urea production in the last stages of fatal liver disease.


4. In acidosis, there is decreased urea excre­tion.

B. Ammonia:

1. Ammonia is formed by the kidney from glutamine or amino acids in acidosis.

2. There is a high ammonia output in the urine in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in which renal function is unimpaired.

C. Creatinine and Creatine:

1. Creatine is excreted by children and preg­nant women and much smaller amounts in men. The excretion in men is 6% of the total excretion of creatinine.

2. Creatinine is formed from creatine. It is excreted in relatively constant amounts regardless of diet.

3. The creatinine coefficient is the ratio be­tween the amount of creatinine excreted in 24 hours and the body weight in kg. It is usually 20-26 mg/kg/day in normal men and 14-22 mg/kg/day in normal women.

4. Creatinine excretion is decreased in many pathological conditions.

5. Creatine excretion is also found in patho­logical states such as starvation, hyper­thyroidism, impaired carbohydrate me­tabolism and infections.

6. Creatine excretion is decreased in hy­pothyroidism.

D. Uric Acid:

1. It is the end product of the oxidation of purines in the body. It is not only formed from dietary nucleoprotein but also from the breakdown of cellular nucleoprotein in the body.

2. It is slightly soluble in water and precipi­tates readily from acid urine on standing.

3. Uric acid excretion is increased in leukemia, severe liver disease and vari­ous stages of gout.

4. The concentrated urine on cooling forms a brick-red deposit which is mainly acid urate.

5. Pure uric acid is colourless. Deposits of uric acid and urates are coloured by ab­sorbed urinary pigments, particularly the red uroervthrin.

6. The specificity of the analysis of uric acid is increased by treatment with uricase, the enzyme (from hog kidney) which converts uric acid to allantoin.

E. Amino Acids:

1. About 150-200 mg of amino acid nitro­gen is excreted in the urine of adults in 24 hours.

2. The infant at birth excretes about 3 mg amino acid nitrogen per pound of body weight, and up to the age of 6 months the value reaches to 1 mg/pound which is maintained throughout childhood. Prema­ture infants excrete 10 times amino acid nitrogen than that of full-term infant.

3. The low excretion of amino acid nitrogen is due to its high renal threshold value.

4. Increased amounts of amino acids are ex­creted in liver disease and in certain types of poisoning.

5. In cystinuria, 4 amino acids-arginine, cys­tine, lysine and ornithine are excreted in urine.

F. Allantoin:

1. It is the partial oxidative products of uric acid. Small quantities of the allantoin are excreted in human urine.

2. In other sub-primate mammals, allantoin, the principal end product of purine me­tabolism, is excreted.

G. Sulphates:

The urine sulphur is derived from sulphur contain­ing amino acids such as methionine and cystine and therefore, its output varies with protein intake.

The urine sulphur exists in 3 forms:

I. Inorganic (sulfate) sulfur:

1. This is the completely oxidized sulfur pre­cipitated from urine.

2. It is proportionate to the ingested protein with a ratio of 5 : 1 between urine nitro­gen and inorganic sulfate.

II. Ethereal sulfur (conjugated sulfates):

1. It is about 10% of the total excreted sulfur.

This includes the organic combination of sulfur excreted in the urine.

2. It consists of the sulphuric esters of cer­tain phenols.

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3. It forms no precipitate on addition of acidi­fied BaCl2. Some of the phenols are de­rived from putrefaction of protein in the large intestine.

4. Clinically, the ethereal sulfate is that of indoxyl indican which is formed from bac­terial decomposition of tryptophan in the large intestine.

5. Normally, 5-20 mg of indican are excreted and the amount increases in constipation. In cholera, typhus gangrene of lung, suffi­cient indican is excreted. Indoxyl liber­ated from indican is oxidized to indigo blue on exposure to air.

III. Neutral sulfur:

1. These are un-oxidized sulfur and contained in cystine, taurine, thiocyanate or sulfides.

2. They do not vary with the diet.

3. They are mainly the products of endog­enous metabolism.

Other organic compounds:

H. Chlorides:

These are excreted as NaCl and output varies with intake.

I. Phosphates:

1. The urine phosphates consist of sodium and potassium phosphates as well as cal­cium and magnesium phosphates.

2. The greater part of the excreted phos­phates is derived from ingested food which contains organic phosphates, e.g., nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and phospholipids. Phosphates of food are not completely absorbed. Some phosphate is also derived from cellular breakdown.

3. Phosphate excretion is increased in cer­tain bone diseases such as osteomalacia, wasting diseases of the nervous system and in renal tubular rickets.

4. Marked increase of phosphate excretion is also observed in hyperparathyroidism and decrease in hypoparathyroidism and in infectious diseases.

J. Oxalates:

1. The amount of oxalate in the urine is low (20 mg/day) and found as calcium oxalate crystals in urinary deposits.

2. The excretion of oxalate is increased by ingestion of fruits and vegetables contain­ing high oxalates (spinach).

3. Large quantities of oxalate are excreted in urine in inherited metabolic diseases.

4. The oxalates present in urine are com­posed of partly unchanged ingested acid and partly oxidative products of other compounds.

K. Minerals:

1. The 4 cations of the extracellular fluid— sodium, potassium, calcium and magne­sium—are present in the urine.

2. Sodium content varies with intake. Urine potassium increases when the intake is increased or in excessive tissue catabolism. The excretion of potassium is affected by alkalosis. Sodium and potassium excre­tion are also controlled by the activity of the adrenal cortex.

3. Calcium and magnesium are not com­pletely absorbed and their presence in the urine is low. But their presence in the urine varies in certain pathological states, par­ticularly those involving bone metabolism.

L. Enzymes:

1. Traces of many enzymes are excreted in urine including pancreatic amylase, pep­sin, trypsin and lipase.

2. The pancreatic amylase excretion is in­creased in pancreatic disease.

M. Hormones and vitamins:

1. Certain hormones (sex hormones) and vi­tamins (e.g., B, and C) are found in urine.

2. The vitamin needs are assessed by study­ing the urinary output after test doses. The pregnancy test is also performed by the urinary sex hormones.

Abnormal Constituents of the Urine:

A. Proteins:

Proteinuria (albuminuria) is the presence of albu­min and globulin in the urine in abnormal concen­trations. The traces of protein (10-150 mg) present in normal urine cannot be detected by the ordinary simple tests. Pathologically, several proteins, such as serum albumin, serum globulin, hemoglobin, mucus, proteose, Bence-Jones proteins are found in urine.

1. Physiologic proteinuria:

In this condition, less than 0.5% protein is present in urine which occurs after severe exercise, after a high protein meal or as a result of some temporary impairment in renal circulation when a person stands erect. In 30-35% of pregnancy, there is proteinuria.

2. Pathologic proteinuria:

Proteinuria is marked in glomerulonephritis. In neph­rotic syndrome, a marked proteinuria oc­curs. The proteinuria increases with the increasing severity of the renal lesion. Pro­teinuria also results in poisoning of the renal tubules by heavy metals like mer­cury, arsenic or bismuth.

3. Hemoglobin is also present as a result of hematuria due to hemorrhage from the kidneys or urinary tract, clotting may oc­cur due to sufficient fibrinogen on pass­ing of much blood.

4. Mucus is the term for an unidentified pro­tein precipitated by acetic acid in the cold. It is mucin. The mucus is increased in in­fection of the bladder.

5. Proteose may be found which is of little clinical significance.

6. Bence-Jones proteins found in the urine are the peculiar proteins which are light chain fragments of globulins. Most com­monly they occur in multiple myeloma and rarely in leukemia. They are precipi­tated when the urine warmed to 50-60°C and re-dissolved almost completely at 100°C and precipitated again on cooling.

B. Glucose:

Normal individuals excrete not more than 16-300 mg of sugar per day which is diffi­cult to detect by simple test. It is said to be glycosuria when more than this quantity is found in urine. There are different causes of glycosuira.

Transient glycosuria is observed after emotional stress such as exciting atheletic contest. 15% of cases of glycosuria are not due to diabetes glycosuria suggesting dia­betes must be confirmed by blood glucose studies to eliminate the probability of re­nal glycosuria.

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The presence of glucose must be tested by Benedict’s test. But in case of pregnant women and lactating mother, the Osazone test must be performed for urine glucose to eliminate the lactose present in urine.

C. Other sugars:

1. Fructosuria:

Fructosuria is due to the dis­turbance in fructose metabolism but no other carbohydrates.

2. Galactosuria and lactosuria:

These may occur occasionally in infants, pregnant women and lactating mother. Galactosuria may occur in inherited diseases due to the non-conversion of galactose to glucose.

3. Pentosuria:

This may occur transiently after intake of food containing large quan­tities of pentose’s, such as grapes, cherries and plums. It may take place in inherited diseases in which pentose’s are not metabo­lized. To detect these other sugars in urine it is wise to perform Osazone test.

D. Ketone bodies:

1. Only less than 1 mg of ketone bodies are excreted in urine normally in 24 hours.

2. Increased amount of ketone bodies are ex­creted in urine in starvation, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, ether anesthesia, and some types of alkalosis.

3. Excess fat metabolism may induce a ketonuria in many animals.

4. Increased amount of ammonia is excreted in acidosis accompanying ketosis.

E. Bilirubin and Bile salts:

1. Bilirubin is found in the urine in cases of obstructive or hepatic jaundice.

2. Bilirubinuria is accompanied by the ex­cretion of bile salts.

3. Bile salts may be excreted in urine with­out bile pigment in certain stages in liver disease.

4. In excessive hemolysis, traces of bilirubin without bile salts are excreted in urine.

F. Blood:

1. In the lesion of the kidney or urinary tract blood is excreted in the urine in addition to its presence in nephritis.

2. Free hemoglobin is also found in urine after quick hemolysis, e.g., in black water fever (a complication of malaria) or after severe burns.

G. Urobilinogen:

1. In excessive hemolysis, e.g., hemolytic jaundice or pernicious anemia, part of the bile pigment formed by breakdown of hemoglobin is excreted in urine as urobilinogen.

2. Urobilin is formed from colourless uro­bilinogen when the urine is exposed to air. This gives the urine an orange colour.

3. In liver disease or temporarily in consti­pation, large amounts of urobilin are found in urine.

4. Urobilinogen excreted in urine normally are 1-3.5 mg/24 hrs.

H. Porphyrins:

1. Coprophyrins excreted in urine normally are 50-250 (µ gm./day.

2. Coproporphyria are excreted more in cer­tain liver diseases.

3. The increased amount of coproporphyrins in the urine is a characteristic of the urine of patients suffering from porphyria.

Urinary Deposits:

The commonest deposits are phosphates, oxalates and urates and are frequently seen in normal urine.


1. They are usually found in alkaline urines. The commonest is ammonium magnesium phosphate which forms a characteristic crystal.

2. A less common form is calcium hydrogen phosphate which forms long prisms.

3. Amorphous calcium and magnesium phos­phates may be deposited from alkaline urines.

The deposition of phosphates is due to a change in pH after the urine has been passed.

Calcium Oxalate:

This is found in acid urine but may be found in alkaline urine. The crystals are of two types—octahedra, dumb-bells. Calcium oxalate is insoluble in acetic acid.


1. They are usually found in acid urines.

2. Uric acid separates into different forms in­cluding prisms, barrels, hexagons and nee­dles which are always pigmented.

3. Urates are redissolved on warming the urine.

4. The cause of deposition of urates is the cooling of urine after it has been passed.

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1. The quantity of feces varies from day to day and with the diet.

2. Vegetable food increases the bulk of feces but meat diet which is largely absorbed diminishes the bulk.

3. An adult taking a mixed diet passes from 60 to 250 gm of moist feces containing 25-45 gm of solids per day.

4. The young children release high bulk.


1. Normal adult feces have a water content of 65-80%.

2. One-third of the dry matter of feces is rep­resented by bacteria. The rest are the remaining’s of intestinal secretions, sub­stances excreted by the large intestine (e.g., Ca, Fe) and small amounts of food residues. The food residues are cellulose, fruit skins and seeds.

3. The only substances in feces are fat, nitro­gen and mineral elements.

Dry feces con­tain the following:


1. The normal colour of feces is brown which is due to stercobilin (urobilin).

2. Milk, cereals and meat, coffee, cocoa, black berries, etc. form darker stools.

3. Greenish colour due to excessive con­sumption of green vegetables.

4. The colour of the feces of newly-born in­fants is dark or blackish-green due to biliverdin and porphyrin.

5. The stools of young infants on a milk diet is yellow due to bilirubin because of non-development of intestinal bacterial flora.

6. The presence of blood in the stool gives the feces a red colour. Excessive hemoly­sis will give a dark-brown feces.

7. Iron or bismuth gives a black stool.


1. The normal odour is due to indole and skatole.

2. Mercaptans and H2S may produce odour.

3. A meat diet produces a more intense odour than a vegetable one and a milk diet least of all.


1. Feces are normally slightly alkaline, pH 7.0-7.5.

2. They may be slightly acid with a large proportion of carbohydrate or fat.


1. The total fat of feces is divided into two:

(a) Split fat (fatty acids).


(b) Unsplit fat (neutral fats, phospholipids, sterols, pig­ments).

2. The amount of fat is independent of the diet. The split fat diminishes in amount on low-fat diets.

3. In diseases, fecal fat is increased when digestion or absorption of fat is im­paired.


1. Fecal nitrogen is very little affected by the amount of protein ingested if the pro­tein is well masticated and well assimi­lated.

2. An adult of a mixed diet usually excretes about lgm of fecal nitrogen per day.

3. In diseases, fecal nitrogen is greatly in­creased by failure of digestion or absorp­tion of protein.


1. Moist feces contain about 2-3% of salts. Most abundant are calcium and phosphate.

2. Small amounts of magnesium, iron, so­dium, potassium, chloride and sulphate are also present in feces. The proportion of calcium is higher on a milk diet and that of magnesium on a meat diet.


1. Sweat is a more dilute fluid and is always hypotonic.

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2. The pH is about 4.5. But if the skin is washed and dried, sweat secreted is slightly alkaline (pH 7.0-7.4).

3. It contains most of the diffusible constitu­ents of plasma. The most abundant con­stituent is NaCl.

4. The lactic acid content is more than nor­mally found in blood.


What is the composition of urine answer? ›

It consists of water, urea (from amino acid metabolism), inorganic salts, creatinine, ammonia, and pigmented products of blood breakdown, one of which (urochrome) gives urine its typically yellowish colour.

How do I read my urine test results? ›

Normal values are as follows:
  1. Color – Yellow (light/pale to dark/deep amber)
  2. Clarity/turbidity – Clear or cloudy.
  3. pH – 4.5-8.
  4. Specific gravity – 1.005-1.025.
  5. Glucose - ≤130 mg/d.
  6. Ketones – None.
  7. Nitrites – Negative.
  8. Leukocyte esterase – Negative.
21 Jun 2022

What are the normal constituents of urine and their normal value? ›

Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with a minimum of these remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration: Urea 9.3 g/L. Chloride 1.87 g/L. Sodium 1.17 g/L.

What is the percentage of the constituents of urine? ›

The urine consists of 95% of water, 2.5% of urea and 2.5% other waste products.

What Colour is urine? ›

Normal urine color ranges from pale yellow to deep amber — the result of a pigment called urochrome and how diluted or concentrated the urine is. Pigments and other compounds in certain foods and medications can change your urine color. Beets, berries and fava beans are among the foods most likely to affect the color.

What are the different types of urine? ›

Here's a handy color chart next time you're standing around, wondering:
  • Transparent. Colorless urine may indicate over-hydration. ...
  • Pale straw color. Normal, healthy, well-hydrated.
  • Transparent yellow. Normal.
  • Dark yellow. ...
  • Amber or honey. ...
  • Light orange. ...
  • Orange. ...
  • Dark orange or brown.
21 Apr 2014

What is abnormal in urine test? ›

Cloudiness or an unusual odor can indicate a problem, such as an infection. Protein in urine can make it appear foamy. Blood in the urine can make it look red or brown. Urine color can be influenced by what you've just eaten or by certain drugs you're taking.

What are 4 types of tests done on urine? ›

Red blood cell urine test. Glucose urine test. Protein urine test. Urine pH level test.

What's the normal pH of urine? ›

Normal Results

The normal values range from pH 4.6 to 8.0.

What percentage of urine is water? ›

Urine is about 95% water. It is not completely sterile of microorganisms, as many sources incorrectly state. But it doesn't contain any of the harmful microbes that can make you immediately sick—such as those you might ingest from contaminated wilderness water, and which are generally transferred through feces instead.

What is abnormal urine constituents? ›

The abnormal constituents of urine are blood cells, albumin, and glucose. Presence of albumin, glucose, and blood cells in the urine causes the pathological conditions called albuminuria, glycosuria, and haematuria respectively.

What are the normal constituents of urine male and female? ›

Urea: 9.3 g/dL. Creatinine: 0.670 g/ L. Sodium: 1.17 g/L. Potassium: 0.750 g/L.

How many percentage of urea is present in urine? ›

Urine consists of 95% urea.

What is urine used for? ›

Therefore, urine can be used as a fertilizer. Some animals use it to mark their territories. Historically, aged or fermented urine (known as lant) was also used for gunpowder production, household cleaning, tanning of leather and dyeing of textiles.
Chloride4970 mg/L
Calcium230 mg/L
10 more rows

How much ammonia is in urine? ›

from the body in urine, although some is excreted in feces. healthy humans range from 0.7–2 mg/L.

What causes protein in urine? ›

Strenuous exercise, dehydration, diet, stress, pregnancy, and other conditions can cause a temporary rise in urine protein levels. Your provider may recommend other urinalysis tests to see whether you continue to have a high level of protein in your urine over time.

Why is urine yellow pregnant? ›

Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that enables oxygen to be taken around the body. Red blood cells are renewed in their millions every day, so old ones must be broken down. The urochrome by-product of this process ends up in the urine as a yellow color.

Where are kidneys located? ›

They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of your bladder.

Is urine an acid or base? ›

Urine has the highest range of pH compared to other bodily fluids. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry says the normal urine pH range is between 4.5 and 8. Any pH higher than 8 is basic or alkaline, and any under 6 is acidic.

Why is urine dark? ›

Urine naturally has some yellow pigments called urobilin or urochrome. The darker urine is, the more concentrated it tends to be. Dark urine is most commonly due to dehydration. However, it may be an indicator that excess, unusual, or potentially dangerous waste products are circulating in the body.

Is uric acid found in urine? ›

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys, where it passes out in urine.

Can drinking too much water affect urine test? ›

The only thing that affects a dilute sample is the amount of fluid taken in within a short period of time prior to providing the urine sample. If you are seeing results that show you are getting close to a dilute sample, try to stop drinking any fluids 2-4 hours prior to providing the sample.

What does a high pH in urine mean? ›

If a person has a high urine pH, meaning that it is more alkaline, it might signal a medical condition, such as: kidney stones. urinary tract infections (UTIs) kidney-related disorders.

What should not be in urine? ›

A small amount of urine will be looked at under a microscope to check for things that do not belong in normal urine that cannot be seen with the naked eye, including red blood cells, white blood cells (or pus cells), bacteria (germs), or crystals (which are formed from chemicals in the urine and may eventually get ...

Is blood in urine normal? ›

When to see a doctor. Make an appointment to see your doctor anytime you notice blood in your urine. Some medications, such as the laxative Ex-lax, and certain foods, including beets, rhubarb and berries, can cause your urine to turn red.

Why pus cells increase in urine? ›

Majorly the presence of pus cells in urine is due to an infection from bacteria or viruses. The main reasons that can lead to the occurrence of pus cells in urine include: Urinary tract infection (UTI), that is, infection in any part of your urinary system like urinary bladder, urethra, ureter or kidneys.

Is there potassium in urine? ›

For adults, normal urine potassium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 25 to 125 mEq per day in a 24 hour collection. Lower or higher urinary level may occur depending on the amount of potassium in your diet and the amount of potassium in your body.

What is pH full form? ›

The full form of pH is Potential of Hydrogen. pH is known as the negative logarithm of H+ ion concentration. Hence the meaning of the name pH is explained as the strength of hydrogen. pH describes the concentration of the hydrogen ions in a solution and it is the indicator of acidity or basicity of the solution.

What color is acidic urine? ›

The color of urine can be influenced by: - pH: acidic urine usually darker. - concentration: pale yellow urine is usually hypotonic, while dark urine is hypertonic (except in osmotic diuresis -e.g. in glucosuria- where the pale colored urine has high specific weight).

What is the pH of blood? ›

Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of about 7.35 to 7.45. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7.40. A doctor evaluates a person's acid-base balance by measuring the pH and levels of carbon dioxide (an acid) and bicarbonate (a base) in the blood.

Is protein found in urine? ›

Low levels of protein in urine are typical. Temporarily high levels of protein in urine aren't unusual either, particularly in younger people after exercise or during an illness. Persistently high levels of protein in urine may be a sign of kidney disease.

What minerals are in urine? ›

What are common types of crystals found in urine?
  • Ammonium biurate.
  • Bilirubin.
  • Calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.
  • Cystine.
  • Hippuric acid.
  • Leucine.
  • Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate).
  • Tyrosine.
16 Nov 2021

Is glucose present in urine? ›

Glucose is not usually found in urine. If it is, further testing is needed. The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

What are the physical characteristics of urine? ›

Physical characteristics that can be applied to urine include color, turbidity (transparency), smell (odor), pH (acidity – alkalinity) and density. Many of these characteristics are notable and identifiable by by vision alone, but some require laboratory testing.

What toxins are released in urine? ›

Urine is mostly water, and contains mineral salts, and about 2% urea, which is produced in the liver to remove ammonia, which is a very toxic substance. Urea has a very low toxicity, although a continuous high level of urea in the blood (a condition called hyperuremia) can cause disease.

What is the process of urine formation called? ›

Key Points on Urine Formation and Osmoregulation

Urine is formed in three main steps- glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion. It comprises 95 % water and 5% wastes such as ions of sodium, potassium and calcium, and nitrogenous wastes such as creatinine, urea and ammonia.

What is urine in biology? ›

Urine is a waste product of metabolism and is formed in the kidneys to be excreted normally through urination or micturition. In mammals, including humans, urine is in a liquid form whereas in birds and reptiles, it is solid or semisolid.

How many RBC in urine is normal? ›

Normal Results

A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope.

What is the composition of urine Class 11? ›

-Urine is composed mainly of water along with some organic and inorganic matters. The water constitutes about 95% and the remaining are solid. -The organic solids consist of proteins, hormones, pigments, metabolites, etc.

What is the composition of urine Class 10? ›

It comprises 95 % water and 5% wastes such as ions of sodium, potassium and calcium, and nitrogenous wastes such as creatinine, urea and ammonia.

What is the composition of urine Class 10 Brainly? ›

Answer: Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water. Other constituents include urea, chloride, sodium, potassium, creatinine and other dissolved ions, and inorganic and organic compounds.

What is the composition of urine quizlet? ›

Healthy urine consists of water, ammonia, potassium, hydrogen, little sodium, little creatine, little uric acid and urea and little bilirubin, if any of these substance is present in too much (or to little) quanity then it becomes unhealthy. Substances not normally in urine-glucose, protein, RBC, WBC and hemoglobin.

What percent of urine is water? ›

Urine is about 95% water. It is not completely sterile of microorganisms, as many sources incorrectly state. But it doesn't contain any of the harmful microbes that can make you immediately sick—such as those you might ingest from contaminated wilderness water, and which are generally transferred through feces instead.

What is urine in biology? ›

Urine is a waste product of metabolism and is formed in the kidneys to be excreted normally through urination or micturition. In mammals, including humans, urine is in a liquid form whereas in birds and reptiles, it is solid or semisolid.

What is the normal pH level of urine? ›

Normal Results

The normal values range from pH 4.6 to 8.0. The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

Where is urine formed? ›

Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. Two ureters. These narrow tubes carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

What are the 4 steps of urine formation? ›

There are three main steps of urine formation: glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.

How many percentage of urea is present in urine? ›

Urine consists of 95% urea.

What is the composition of urine are Glucose protein are? ›

Answer: Urine consists of 95% of water, 2.5% urea and 2.5% other substances. Proteins and glucose are not present in urine as they get filtered in the kidneys. When the blood passes through kidneys all the wastes are removed from it and is known as urine.

How is volume of urine regulated? ›

Volume of urine is regulated by ADH and aldosterone. The osmotic gradient is normally constant, but the permeability of the collecting duct to water is adjusted by a hormone, antidiuretic hormone, ADH. Aldosterone maintains salt balance in the body.

Which substance is a normal constituent of urine quizlet? ›

Which substance is a normal constituent of urine. 95% water. Other constituents include urea, chloride, sodium, potassium, creatinine and other dissolved ions, and inorganic and organic compounds.

What percentage of urine is normally water quizlet? ›

Urine is approximately 50 percent water.

What is the most common solute in urine? ›

Urea is the most abundant solute in the urine in humans (on a Western-type diet) and laboratory rodents. It is far more concentrated in the urine than in plasma and extracellular fluids.


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