7 Different Types of Biomaterials and Their Applications that you should know (2023)

7 Different Types of Biomaterials and Their Applications that you should know (1)

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    (Video) Biomaterials: Crash Course Engineering #24

BIS Research 7 Different Types of Biomaterials and Their Applications that you should know (2)

BIS Research

Emerging Technology Market Intelligence

Published Oct 29, 2021

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(Video) Biomaterials and its Applications

Biomaterials are substances that can interact with biological systems for medical purposes. Biomaterials can be derived from nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical approaches.

These materials are primarily used or adapted forapplications in the medical =industry. These materials contain a whole or part of a living structure or a biomedical device that leads, increases, or replaces the natural function of the body. Biomaterials are also used daily across applications for dental, surgical operations and for delivery of drugs.

Based on one of the market intelligence studies published by BIS Research, the biomaterials market is expected to reach $725.88 billion by 2031, witnessing a growth of 17.98% during the forecast period 2021-2031.

There are different types of biomaterials available, and each of them is used for various applications across several industries. Someof the types of biomaterials are mentioned as follows:

  1. Metal-Based Biomaterials: In 1920, with the introduction of stainless steel, it was considered that it has far-superior corrosion resistance to any metal at that time. Thus, was adopted to be implemented on a large scale. Since then, metals have been used widely as biomaterials. The demand for major biocompatible metals such as stainless steel, titanium, chromium, cobalt, nitinol, gold, and silver is significantly increasing owing to the increase in cardiovascular, orthopedic, dental, and neurological diseases that require implants and surgeries, which use metals at every stage.

The metals include stainless steel, commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys, cobalt and chromium alloys, gold, silver, magnesium, and nitinol. Metals are used in all biomaterials, such as cardiovascular, orthopedic, ophthalmology, and dental applications. Metals are used in all applications, including maxillofacial surgery, from simple wires, rods, pins, screws to fracture fixation plates and total joint prostheses (artificial joints) for hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles cardiovascular surgery, dental materials, etc.

(Video) Introduction To Biomedical Materials

  1. Polymer-Based Biomaterials: Polymer-based biomaterials have replaced other materials such as metals, alloys, and ceramics because of their low cost, chemical stability, easy processability and re-processability, and better corrosion resistance. The polymer-based biomaterials have been extensively used in medicine, biotechnology, food, and cosmetic industries. The use of polymeric biomaterials in various medical applications includes vascular grafts, implants, wound dressing, sutures, catheters, meshes, stents, ligament repair, tendon repair, and valves used for cardiac surgeries.. For use in biomedical applications, polymeric materials are generally classified into synthetic, natural, or a combination of both polymers. Natural polymers are derived from plant and animal sources and mainly include silk, wool, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), cellulose, and proteins.
  2. Ceramic-Based Biomaterials: The bio-ceramics have certain properties such as stiffness, hardness, chemical stability, and wear resistance, among others, that make them highly biocompatible. Some of the advantages of bio-ceramics include biocompatibility and bioactivity, less stress shielding, no disease transmission, and easy availability. The only disadvantage is the brittleness of the material, which is a setback in load-bearing applications. Bio-ceramics have a range of biocompatibility that differs from the composition of the ceramic oxides, which are inert in the body and on the resorbable materials, which are eventually replaced by the body after they have assisted repair. Bio-ceramics are used in medical devices as rigid materials in surgical implants. However, some bio-ceramics are flexible as they are related to the body's own materials, while some of them are extremely durable metal oxides. The use of bioceramics in dental and bone implants, surgical cermets, and joint replacements is common. Sometimes coatings with bio-ceramic materials also aid in reducing the wear and inflammatory responses. They are also used in pacemakers, kidney dialysis machines, respirators, extracorporeal circulation systems, and engineered bioreactors; however, they are mainly used as implants.
  3. Natural Biomaterials: Biomaterials are classified into two main groups, namely, synthetic and natural biomaterials. Synthetic biomaterials can be classified as metals, ceramics, non-biodegradable polymers, and biodegradable polymers. The disadvantages of synthetic biomaterials, such as differences in structure and composition, biocompatibility, and the low ability to induce tissue remodeling, are overcome by natural biomaterials. Thus, naturally derived biomaterials are a topic of research interest all over the world. Naturally derived biomaterials can be classified as hyaluronic acid, chitin, cellulose, silk, chitosan, gelatin, and fibrin. They are usually used to replace or restore structure and function of damaged tissues/organs, as drug delivery systems and medical devices such as surgical sutures.
  4. Inorganic Glass-Based Biomaterials: Inorganic glass is an amorphous, hard, and transparent liquid formed after the super-cooling process. This class of biomaterials comprises silicates, phosphates, and bioactive glasses. Inorganic glass is usually manufactured by fusing a mixture of multiple metallic silicates. It is referred to as inorganic glass because glass is a combination of inorganic compounds such as silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium, and lead. Also, organic compounds are not used to manufacture any glass; hence, it is called inorganic glass. Inorganic glass has the potential to be a very flexible and efficient biomedical material. Glasses can be made from silicates, phosphates, germinates, gallates, rare earth, fluorides, and oxides, among others. Certain glasses are used in biotechnology, in medical devices such as sensing IR, delivery of high-power mid-infrared laser, etc. Inorganic bioactive biomaterials are used to replace hard tissues in bone tissues, bone tissue engineering, and dental restoration.
  5. Regenerative Biomaterials: Regenerative biomaterials find their major application in tissue engineering, which is driving the regenerative biomaterials market. Tissue engineering products consist of marginally manipulated biomaterials and cells. Earlier, regenerative biomaterials were used only in prosthetic devices. Still, they are being used in the bone, liver, cornea, cardiac tissue engineering, wound healing, tissue-engineered blood vessels, and the development of biomaterial scaffolds. Regenerative biomaterials are majorly used in tissue engineering for bone and joint reconstruction. This segment is experiencing an increase in the market due to technological innovations (nanotechnology-based tissue engineering).
  6. Hybrid Biomaterial Combinations: Hybrid biomaterial combinations are a combination of naturally derived materials and synthetic materials. Biomaterials are widely used in the applications of tissue engineering, such as in scaffolds for regenerative medicine, nanomaterial for bio-sensing, and tailoring of inorganic nanoparticles, as they shape and structure the tissues, providing mechanical stability and strength. They also provide opportunities for the delivery of inductive molecules for transplantation and migration of cells. Hybrid biomaterials represent perfect combinations of natural and synthetic polymers with various other materials to enhance cellular interactions. The biocompatibility of these materials encourages strong integrations of these materials into the host tissue, thereby providing suitable material properties and degradation kinetics. Hybrid materials are being majorly promoted in the fields of bone formations, vascular, and neural tissues. Research is also being done for implementing hybrid materials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Each type of biomaterial is used for different applications ranging from biomedical to regenerative tissues for treating several health issues. In the past years, researchers and biomaterials industry players have been experimenting with different technologies for years and looking out for implantable devices and regenerative medicine that can be highly advantageous in overcoming the challenges faced by end users.


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